Tiger conservation- The Hindu-29-07-2022

On July 29, which is Global Tiger Day (also called International Tiger Day), the world and India can celebrate the recovery of at least one endangered species. India is now reporting increased tiger numbers, and a recent International Union for Conservation of Nature assessment suggests that tiger numbers have increased by 40% since 2005.

International Tiger Day: July 29, which is Global Tiger Day (also called International Tiger Day)
International Wildlife Protection Act 1972, Schedule1
IUCN Red List: Endangered
CITES: Appendix 1
Significance of Tiger conservation :
Tiger is a symbol of our National Pride
The aesthetic, ethical, and cultural values of tigers are critical factors for saving tigers.
Tigers are called “umbrella” species. By saving them, we save everything beneath their ecological
umbrella - including the world's last great forests
The presence of tigers in the forest is an indicator of the well-being of the ecosystem.
They prevent over-grazing by limiting herbivore numbers and maintaining ecological integrity.
Tigers attract tourists, which provide income for local communities.
A healthy tiger population lives in large forests – which are nothing but natural sinks of Carbon.
Mains :
Concerns / Challenges :
Large-scale habitat Degradation and dwindling prey populations are the major long-term threats to the existence of tigers in the country.
Tigers are increasingly coming into conflict with humans as they attack domestic animals – and sometimes people while they move through human-dominated spaces.
Government is slow to adopt good science for conservation purposes as stated by Ullas Karanth, an expert on tigers.
Lack of access to data.
Researchers from non-governmental, institutions such as the National Centre for Biological Sciences and the Indian Institute of Science face difficulties to get permission (to visit parts of a forest) for research.
Tiger conservation effort is losing stream due to excessive Bureaucratization.
Fighting against poaching is not efficient in all parts of the country. In eastern India, it is almost ineffective.

Efforts being made to save tigers :

-‘Project Tiger’ in 1972.
-The National Tiger Conservation Authority is constituted for escalating tiger conservation.
-In-principle approval has been accorded for the creation of New tiger reserves at Ratapani Tiger
Reserve (Madhya Pradesh), Sunabeda Tiger Reserve (Odisha), and Guru Ghasidas (Chhattisgarh).
Rajaji National Park (Uttarakhand), Orang National Park (Assam) & Kamlang Wildlife Sanctuary
(Arunachal Pradesh) have been declared as 48th, 49th & 50th Tiger Reserves.

-Curbing wildlife trade through international agreements like Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES).
-NGOs such as Trade Records Analysis of Flora and Fauna in Commerce (TRAFFIC) assist member states with the implementation of CITES.
-India is a member of the Global Tiger Forum which is the only inter-governmental body for tiger conservation.
-Financial and technical help is provided to the State Governments under Project Tiger and Integrated Development of Wildlife Habitats.
-‘Monitoring system for Tigers’ Intensive Protection and Ecological Status (M-STrIPES)’ for effective field patrolling and monitoring.
-To control the Transboundary illegal trade in wildlife and conservation, India signed a bilateral understanding with Nepal.
-For the conservation of tigers in the Sunderban region, India has signed a protocol with Bangladesh

Tiger conservation / protection is a collective responsibility between the Centre, tiger States and country citizens.The tiger survey must be shifted from the government to scientists and researcher institutions.Foster awareness about tiger conservation through discussions, exhibitions and local campaigns Interact with local schools for mainstreaming conservation as an important curricular/ extracurricular activity Say ‘NO’ to tiger trade by refusing to buy tiger parts and items prepared from tiger derivatives.Creating opportunities for young people to take up a career in wildlife is also a very conducive method of saving the animals.

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