Gun law-The Hindu-21-09-2022

Governance :
Context :Gun violence is an issue that is hotly debated in countries such as the U.S.

Background :
Gun laws and policies, collectively referred to as firearms regulation or gun control, regulate the manufacture, sale, transfer, possession, modification, and use of small arms by civilians. Laws of some countries may afford civilians a right to keep and bear arms, and have more liberal gun laws than neighboring jurisdictions. Countries that regulate access to firearms will typically restrict access to certain categories of firearms and then restrict the categories of persons who may be granted a license for access to such firearms. There may be separate licenses for hunting, sport shooting (a.k.a. target shooting), self-defense, collecting, and concealed carry, with different sets of requirements, permissions, and responsibilities.
Arms Act, 1959
Indian law divides firearm licenses into two types:
Prohibited Bore : Prohibited Bore (PB) includes fully automatic, semi-automatic firearms and some other specified types which can only be issued by the central government for certain groups of people. Any normal citizen not liable to issue of prohibited bore.
Non-Prohibited Bore : Non-Prohibited Bore (NBP) includes remaining types of firearms and may be issued by central and state governments for ordinary citizens.
Non-Prohibited Bore Licenses
The law states that a license can be issued to anyone who has a good reason without stipulating what constitutes a good reason. Typically, applicants wanting a license for self-defense purposes need to prove danger to their life.
Article 14 states that authorities can deny a license for unspecified "public peace or for public safety" reasons. They are not obligated to give reason for refusal of an application if they deem it to be necessary. Firearm licenses must be renewed every five years. Approximately 50% of the applications for license are accepted. For example, of the 12.8 million inhabitants, between April 2015 and March 2016, authorities in Mumbai rejected 169 out of 342 firearm applications.
Some local jurisdictions may have additional requirements for granting licenses. For example in 2019 the commissioner of Firozpur district in Punjab ordered that every license applicant must plant atleast 10 trees and take photos with them.
Carrying firearms
Open carry of firearms is prohibited. All firearms must be carried in specially designed holsters.
Benefit of arms Act :
Gun laws are often enacted with the intention of reducing the use of small arms in criminal activity, specifying weapons perceived as being capable of inflicting the greatest damage and those most easily concealed, such as handguns and other short-barreled weapons.
The legislation which restricts small arms may also restrict other weapons, such as explosives, crossbows, swords, electroshock weapons, air guns, and pepper spray.
It may also restrict firearm accessories, notably high-capacity magazines and sound suppressors.
This will restrict on the quantity or types of ammunition purchased, with certain types prohibited.
Demerit of Arms Act :
Firearm licenses may be denied to those felt most at risk of harming themselves or others, such as persons with a history of domestic violence, alcohol use disorder or substance use disorder, mental illness, depression, or attempted suicide.

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