COP-27-The Hindu-14-11-2022

The United Nations Climate Change Conference 2022 — COP27 — opened in Sharm el-Sheikh (Egypt) with the aim of ensuring full implementation of the Paris Agreement adopted in 2015.

Meetings review the progress made by countries in the fight against climate change and in the implementation of decisions taken in earlier COPs.
The first COP meeting was held in Berlin, Germany, in 1995. Selection of COP host:
The venue for the COP meeting rotates among the five UN-identified regions: Africa
Asia-Pacific Eastern Europe
Latin America and Caribbean Western Europe and Others.
The countries in the region propose a candidate, and a host is usually decided at least two years in advance.

Key Findings in COP27:
Global warming: It has already touched 1 degree Celsius Extreme weather events are becoming more frequent and severe
The current commitments and policies of different nations will lead to a temperature rise of 8(two points eight)degrees by the end of this century

Global warming: To restrict global warming to 5(one point five), carbon emissions must come down 45 per cent by 2030 and touch net zero by 2050

Loss and damage: COP27 includes ‘loss and damage’ in the main agenda.
Loss and damage:
It refers to costs the rich and developed countries, who are majorly responsible for industrial emissions, should pay to poorer nations(made a negligible contribution to pollution) but are more vulnerable to extreme climate events –

For example : the devastating floods in Pakistan Climate change and countries'
It's per capita carbon emissions declined from over 20 to 14.6 tonnes per capita(still the highest in the world)

China is next at 4(eight points four)tonnes per capita and Europe-6.8(six point eight)tonnes per capita.
US Supreme Court’s EPA (Environment Protection Agency): To mandate a progressive reduction in carbon emissions.

Net Zero: It has declared 2060 as the year to achieve net zero.
China has acted strategically: It developed technologies and competitive manufacturing

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