Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework - The Hindu - 21/12/22

Recently, at the 15th Conference of Parties (COP15) to the UN Convention on Biological Diversity “Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework” (GBF) was adopted. GBF includes 4 goals and 23 targets for achievement by 2030.
The U.N. biodiversity conference concluded in Canada's Montreal. The first part of COP 15 took place in Kunming, China and reinforced the commitment to address the biodiversity crisis and the Kunming Declaration was adopted by over 100 countries.

->Key Targets of the GBF;-
i. 30x30 Deal: Restore 30% degraded ecosystems globally (on land and sea) by 2030. Conserve and manage 30% areas (terrestrial, inland water, and coastal and marine) by 2030
ii. Stop the extinction of known species, and by 2050
iii. Reduce risk from pesticides by at least 50% by 2030
iv. Reduce pollution risks and negative impacts of pollution
v. Reduce global footprint of consumption by 2030
vi. Sustainably manage areas under agriculture, aquaculture, fisheries, and forestry

->Other Major Outcomes of COP15:
-Money for Nature
-Big Companies Report Impacts on Biodiversity
-Harmful Subsidies
-Monitoring and reporting progress

->India's Demands at the Conference:
-India called for an urgent need to create a new and dedicated fund to help developing countries successfully implement a post-2020 global framework to halt and reverse biodiversity loss.
-According to India, developing countries bear most of the burden of implementing the targets for conserving biodiversity and, therefore, require adequate funding and technology transfer.

Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD): CBD is a legally binding treaty to conserve biodiversity that has been in force since 1993 and has been ratified by 196 nations. It sets out guidelines for countries to protect biodiversity, ensure sustainable use, and promote fair and equitable benefit sharing.

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